• Right to Know & Blood Borne Pathogens

    Please read and understand the follow information concerning chemical hazards and blood borne pathogen safety.  When you are finished you must complete the training by submitting answers to our online quiz.  The information you submit will only be accessible by the program administrator in the Health & Safety office at the Jefferson-Lewis BOCES and your school's training administrator. 

    Right To Know
    What is the Hazard Communication Standard and the Right-To-Know Law and why are they important?

    First, the Hazard Communication Standard CFR 1910.1200 is a Federal O.S.H.A. standard that provides employees with access to information on chemical hazards and provides that employers provide training to minimize employee exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals and injury from these chemicals.

    Under the federal standard the employer must:
    Establish and maintain a written Hazard Communication Plan for each building and ensure that the following are in place:

    • Maintain an inventory for all potentially harmful products.
    • Maintain MSDS's (Material Safety Data Sheets) and provide employee access to these sheets at all times.
    • Enforce labeling requirements on all chemical containers.
    • Provide Hazard Awareness training for employees.

    Second, the Right To Know law is
    a New York State Law that also protects workers from potentially hazardous chemicals in the workplace.  

    Under the New York State law the employer must:

    • Ensure that employees are informed of and protected from the hazards of toxic substances found in the work place and to provide training for these hazards.
    • Post Right-To-Know signs with contact information on them.
    • Notify employees of their rights.
    • Provide requested information from an employee about chemicals that he/she works with within 72 hours.
    • Keep records of all trainings that are conducted.

    Your Responsibilities - As an Employee...

    • Request all information concerning the nature and hazards of any toxic substance that you work with.
    • Refuse to work with a substance if information was requested and not received.
    • Exercise any right pursuant to the Right-To-Know law without fear of discrimination.
    • File a complaint with Department of Labor if you feel that you have been discriminated against.

    It is Also Your Responsibility to...

    • Comply with the safety and health standards that apply to your job.
    • Read labels and material safety data sheets before working with a product.
    • Follow all instructions and warnings for that product.
    • Attend all trainings that are offered to you.
    • Wear the proper PPE (personal protective equipment) when working with a product.

    *Right-To-Know regulations are enforced by the NYS DOL (New York State - Department of Labor) Public Employee Safety & Health (PESH) unit.

    Physical  & Health Hazards

    There are six main chemical hazard areas

    Flammables & Combustibles - Gasoline, spray cans, paper products
    Explosives - Compressed gases - propane, natural gas
    Corrosives - Hydrogen Peroxide, acids, bases
    Carcinogens & Mutagens - Heavy duty cleaners, Benzene, Toluene
    Irritants - Chlorine, Bleach
    Radiation - Welding


    Acute Exposure - Effects after the exposure occur immediately (minutes or hours)

    Chronic Exposure - Effects from the exposure may take years or longer to appear

    Routes of Chemical Exposure

    Chemicals can get into your body in four different ways.

    Absorption - This exposure from a chemical is when it seeps through your skin and causes a reaction of some kind.

    Ingestion - This exposure to a chemical can be from drinking it.

    Inhalation - The chemical gets into your lungs by breathing the chemical in as a gas or a vapor.

    Injection - The chemical gets into your system by force like a needle or stepping on a nail.

    Labels and Material Safety Data Sheets

    The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard requires that ALL hazardous materials be labeled, identifying the material and warning employees of the potential hazards.

    Many chemical products have the NFPA Diamond on its label.

    NFPA Diamond = Four Hazard Classes
    Health = Blue

    Flammability = Red


    Reactivity = Yellow

    Special Hazards = White

    *There are numbers inside of these diamonds (1,2,3,4).

    *Remember - The greater the number, the higher the hazard.

    Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS’s provide detailed information about a specific chemical. You do not need to memorize the order of the sections of a msds.  You do need to know how to access them and understand how to protect yourself.

    1.  Identity - Name of Substance
    2.  Physical Hazards - Target organ/part(s) of the body that are affected
    3.  Health or Physical Hazards - Route of body entry - (Inhalation,  Absorption, Injection and/or Ingestion)
    4.  Carcinogenic Factors - Cancer causing
    5.  Safe Handling Procedures - (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment - Safety Equipment
    6.  Emergency First Aid Procedures
    7.  Contact Information
    8.  Special Instructions


    *Check with your facility if you are unaware or unsure of where your MSDS’s are located.

    *Some schools are enrolled in the MSDS Online program. This program allows anyone who needs an MSDS sheet for a chemical to get one by fax. They can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It is recommended that you should have information about the chemical before you call. This information can include: Product Name & Number, Manufacturer Name, Manufacturer Phone Number, and UPC Code.

    End of RTK


    Blood Borne Pathogens

    What is the Blood Borne Standard and why is it important?

    The Blood Borne Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) is an O.S.H.A. federal law that requires employer must:
    • Establish and maintain a written Exposure Control Plan for each building
    • Provide annual training to all staff
    • Provide offers of vaccinations to at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B in which the employee may refuse.  The employee will be asked to sign a declination form and may later withdraw the declination and request the vacine if he or she chooses.

    Blood Borne Pathogens are pathogenic micro-organisms that can be present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.

    Facts about Viruses and Bacteria


    1. Some virus's can survive from a week to a month in dried blood on environmental surfaces such as handrails or table tops.
    2. A teaspoon of  infected blood may contain over a billion Hepatitis cells.
    3. Hepatitis is 10 times more common than HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) in the United States.
    4. Antibiotics can treat bacterial infections not virus infections.

    Its estimated that 1 out of 20 people in the US are infected with some type of Hepatitis and do not realize it.



    There are various types of Hepatitis (Hepatitis A - G).
    This training covers Hepatitis A - C.

    Symptoms of



    • Jaundice

    • Fatigue

    • Abdominal Pain

    • Loss of Appetite

    • Occasional Nausea or Vomiting

    • Dark colored urine and pale bowel movements

    Hepatitis A  (Not a Blood Borne Pathogen)

    Is a viral infection that attacks the liver and causes inflammation.
    It is one of the most common hepatitis's and is highly contagious.

    It is transmitted through a fecal-oral route, close person-to-person contact, and contaminated water or food.

    The treatment for this is a vaccine or sometimes it heals spontaneously.

    Prevention includes - Vaccination, Hand washing, 10:1 bleach solution on contaminated surfaces, or minimize exposure with PPE & proper food handling.

    Hepatitis B - Is one of the most infectious blood borne pathogen known. It causes liver inflammation and can lead to conditions like cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    There is NO CURE for this pathogen which causes liver inflammation and can lead to conditions like cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.

    It is transmitted – Blood-to-blood, blood-to-mucus membrane contact, contaminated water, contaminated needles, human bites, mothers to babies at birth, and sexual contact.

    Treatment -  There is No Cure but medicine can be prescribed (Interferon (IFN) or Lamivudine).

    Prevention includes -  3 shot vaccine.  Employer is required to offer vaccination at no cost to at risk employees (Bus Drivers, Special Education Teachers, Nurses, Physical Education Teachers and Custodial/Maintenance Staff. These employee's may decline this vaccination. As well as, Proper hand washing, 10:1 bleach solution on contaminated surfaces, and PPE.

    Hepatitis C -
    Causes liver inflammation and can lead to conditions like cirrhosis or liver cancer.

    It is transmitted by blood transfusions and organ donations before 1992, being born to an infected mother, intravenous drug use and sexual contact.

    Vaccine - None available. Medical prescriptions can include Interferon Alpha and Ribvirin.

    Prevention Includes - Hand washing, 10:1 bleach solution
    on contaminated surfaces, and minimize exposure with PPE.


    *80% of people have no symptoms for Hepatitis C and if the person does exhibit symptoms, it feels like the flu.

    HIV - Human Immune Deficiency Virus / AIDS - (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

    HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) – An infection that progresses in stages and leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The AIDS virus attacks the body’s immune system and ultimately causes death.

    It is transmitted by contaminated blood, blood-to-blood or blood-to-mucus membrane contact, contaminated needles, and sexual contact. Infected blood used in transfusions or infected organs donated before March 1985.

    There is No Cure for this virus, but medications can slow the progress of it.

    *It is important to remember that symptoms can develop from 2-15 years after initial infection.

    Work practice controls to keep you safe from Blood Borne Pathogens

    • Never eat, drink, apply cosmetics, or contact lenses where there may be an exposure to body fluids.
    • Do not share personal items (toothbrushes, razors, dining utensils).
    • Dispose of sharps, broken glass or blood soaked materials in proper containers.
    • Wash hands for at least 15 seconds with nonabrasive soap or an antiseptic hand cleaner. Proper hand-washing techniques are listed below.


    Proper Hand-Washing Techniques:


    Ways to Control the Spread of Disease

    Hand Washing


    Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Always wear gloves to address open wounds,  to clean blood and/or other bodily fluids.

    Check gloves to make sure that there are no holes or rips before using them. If you find that the gloves are defective, throw them away.


    If you become Exposed to Blood or Body Fluids :


    • Immediately wash exposed skin with soap and water for at least 30 seconds.

    • Flush any exposed mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, etc.) with water and dry with clean disposable towel.

    • It is very important to keep your hands away from eyes, nose and mouth.

    • Always employ Universal Precautions - Treat all blood or body fluids as if it were infected with a pathogen - even if it is not infected
    • Report any exposures to your supervisor immediately.

    End of BBP

    Click Here to take the required Right To Know / Blood Borne Pathogens quiz.

Last Modified on February 2, 2015